desensitization and reprocessing and refers to a technique for reducing fear or anxiety ; based on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to side. Designed first for Post traumatic stress , EMDR requires that the patient visualize a most upsetting memory and accompanying physical sensations. The clients repeat negative self -statements that they associate with the scene. The patient follows the therapist’s finger as it moves rapidly back and forth. After completing the eye movements, the client stops thinking about the scene. This procedure is repeated again and again until the client’s anxiety is reduced.
Learning difficulty refers to a term covering people who experience more problems than the general population with activities that involve thinking and understanding.Moreover, Learning difficulty is a term that refers to disorders that affect the ability to interpret what one sees and hears or the ability to link information from different parts of the brain, thus disrupting the processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written. This manifests itself in an imperfect ability to listen, speak, think, read, write, spell or use mathematical calculations. The term includes conditions such as dyslexia , brain injury, perceptual disability, minimal brain dysfunction and developmental aphasia.
agonist refers to a drug that reduces the activity of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine by stimulating certain receptors within the central nervous system (central presynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptors). The release of norepinephrine triggers action within the sympathetic nervous system. This part of the nervous system regulates certain involuntary activities during stress, such as increasing the heart rate, deepening breathing, and raising blood pressure. Norepinephrine also plays a role in regulating mood and emotion . The administration of Alpha 2-adrenergic agonists may result in a reduced heart rate and lowered blood pressure and have depressive or sedative effects.
Theory refers to a learning theory developed by Gordon Pask originated from a cybernetics framework and attempts to explain learning in both living organisms and machines. The fundamental idea of this theory was that learning occurs through conversations about a subject matter which serve to make knowledge explicit. Conversations can be conducted at a number of different levels: natural language (general discussion), object languages (for discussing the subject matter), and metalanguages (for talking about learning/language). In order to facilitate learning, Pask argued that subject matter should be represented in the form of entailment structures which show what is to be learned. Entailment structures exist in a variety of different levels depending upon the extent of relationships displayed (e.g., super/subordinate concepts, analogies). The critical method of learning according to Conversation theory is "teachback" in which one person teaches another what they have learned. Pask identified two (2) different types of learning strategies: Serialists who progress through an entailment structure in a sequential fashion and Holists who look for higher order relations.