The Glossary of Psychology describes everything about the World of Psychology. Terms, Treatments, biographies, ... .
illness by making them more available to those needing them and more humane in their treatment . An early nursing pioneer, Dorothea Lynde Dix was a noted humanitarian, reformer, educator and crusader. She is perhaps best known for her patient advocacy in fighting to improve the conditions of jails and mental asylums in North America and Europe. She is likewise characterized as an early US nursing pioneer--predecessor and contemporary of Florence Nightingale; a strong advocate for the mentally ill and for prisoners; a Civil War Superintendent of Union Army Nurses. After the war, Dix dedicated the rest of her life to improving the lives of the mentally ill, before retiring at the age of 82. Her 41 years of empathy for the mentally ill can be summarized in her own words: "If I am cold, they are cold; if I am weary, they are distressed; if I am alone, they are abandoned." Dorothea Lynde Dix died in 1887 at the age of 85 and was buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
DMD refers to a relatively severe and common neuromuscular disorder that affects approximately 1 in every 3-4,000 male live births. The major characteristic of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is the progressive weakness of all muscles; proximal muscles of the limbs are most severely affected. Difficulties in rising from the floor, running and going upstairs are usually evident in the first 2-3 years of life. Enlarged calves can be seen in most children, especially in the early phases of the disease. The weakness is progressive and children with the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy will lose the ability to walk by the age of 13 (the average age being approximately 9). This is due to a combination of weakness and contractures affecting the ankles, knees and hips. A frequently-associated feature (30% of cases) is mild learning disability. Presentation with predominantly cognitive problems is not uncommon (such as speech delay). This is not progressive.
speech refers to Piaget’s term for the subset of a young child’s utterances that are non-social - that is, neither directed to others nor expressed in ways that listeners might understand. In Piaget's observation, toddlers use this to control and direct their behavior . The speech is considered egocentric because it is not intended to communicate with anyone else and often doesn't make sense to anyone else. Vygotsky’s intermediate stage of language development , common between ages 3 and 7, during which children often talk to themselves in an apparent effort to control their own behavior. Vygotsky suggested that egocentric speech is a component of the problem-solving function . Please see Inner speech, Social speech, Private speech.
desensitization and reprocessing and refers to a technique for reducing fear or anxiety ; based on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to side. Designed first for Post traumatic stress , EMDR requires that the patient visualize a most upsetting memory and accompanying physical sensations. The clients repeat negative self-statements that they associate with the scene. The patient follows the therapist’s finger as it moves rapidly back and forth. After completing the eye movements, the client stops thinking about the scene. This procedure is repeated again and again until the client’s anxiety is reduced.