The Glossary of Psychology describes everything about the World of Psychology. Terms, Treatments, biographies, ... .
Association refers to the principle technique in Freudian psychoanalysis in which patients give a running account of thoughts, feelings , mental images, and physical sensations as they occur, in order to derive a repressed or hidden motivation for their psychological disorder. It is a Psychotherapeutic technique in which clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible; a cardinal rule of Psychoanalysis in which patients are required to say anything and everything that comes to mind. Over time, free association is believed to shed light on unconscious thoughts and urges; method used in psychoanalysis in which the client speaks freely, saying whatever comes to mind. It is Freud's major tool for studying the contents of the unconscious mind. With free association, a patient is encouraged to express freely everything that comes to his or her mind; patient relates feelings, fantasies, thoughts, memories, and recent events to the analyst spontaneously and without censoring them. These associations give the analyst clues to the unconscious processes of the patient.
assumptions that human beings develop over time, and that individuals can direct the change in their own lives. In contrast, deterministic models, such as a psychoanalytic approach, presume patterns are set at certain ages and change is not under conscious control. Also in contrast, a medical model presumes that psychological difficulties follow a pathological pattern similar to physical disease. Growth models do not presuppose illness , but rather learning deficits, mistaken ideas, or others factors that can be controlled by the individual. Therapies for growth models also approach difficulties holistically rather than treating symptoms as medical practices usually do.
theory refers to a theory, based on the principle of reinforcement , that assumes that people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs; theory that seeks to understand social behavior by analyzing the costs and benefits of interacting with each other. Moreover, Social exchange theory is the theory which holds that how people feel about a relationship depends on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else; a theory stating that rewards must exceed costs for relationships to endure; the idea that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of the rewards and costs exchanged in interactions.