Glossary of Psychology
The Glossary of Psychology describes everything about the World of Psychology. Terms, Treatments, biographies, ... .
Sickle cell anemiaSickle cell anemia refers to a group of inheritable genetic conditions in which there is an abnormality of the hemoglobin - the protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the various organs of the body. In Sickle cell disorders, some of the red blood cells form a sickle shape following the release of oxygen, which causes them to clump together making their passage through smaller blood vessels difficult. Sickle cell disorders mainly occur in people whose ancestors are of African, African-Caribbean, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Indian origins. Attacks may be precipitated by cold, dehydration, or infections. The most common symptoms are episodic pain in the joints, bones, abdomen and other parts of the body, known as "painful crises". Other problems associated with the condition may affect the spleen or cause blood in the urine, jaundice, strokes, eye problems, leg ulcers, enuresis and delayed puberty.
Osteogenesis ImperfectaOsteogenesis Imperfecta or OI refers to a disease caused by an abnormality in the collagen protein that the body requires for bones as well as other structures, such as teeth, ligaments and skin. The condition often leads to an increased likelihood of fractures, as well as fragile teeth, lax joints, bruising and blue or grey sclera (whites of eyes). Some people with brittle bone diseases develop deafness and some have short stature. Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is also known as Brittle bone disease
Social exchange theorySocial exchange theory refers to a theory, based on the principle of reinforcement, that assumes that people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs; theory that seeks to understand social behavior by analyzing the costs and benefits of interacting with each other. Moreover, Social exchange theory is the theory which holds that how people feel about a relationship depends on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else; a theory stating that rewards must exceed costs for relationships to endure; the idea that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of the rewards and costs exchanged in interactions.
The Stop TechniqueThe Stop Technique refers to a technique which is generally used as a therapeutical technique for the control of obsessive thinking.
Tragedy of the commonsTragedy of the commons refers to the depletion of a communal resource, such as a shared cow pasture for a group of farmers, because each individual pursues selfish interests. It is a social dilemma in which individuals, each acting in his or her immediate self-interest, over-use a scarce group resource. The the "commons" is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources,and food supplies. The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse - the tragedy - of the commons.