Cause-and-effect relationship refers to the result of a well-controlled experiment about which the researcher can confidently state that the Independent variable caused the change in the dependent variable.

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Functional relationship at■■■■■■
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Crossover interaction at■■■■■■
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Manipulation at■■■■■■
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Internally valid at■■■■■
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Hawthorne effect at■■■■■
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Dependent variable at■■■■■
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Extraneous variable at■■■■■
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True Experiment at■■■■■
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Experiment at■■■■■
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Nondirectional hypothesis at■■■■■
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