- Empedocles (ca. 490 to 430 B.C.) : Empedocles refers to a Philosopher who postulated that earth, fire, air, and water as the four (4) basic elements from which everything is made and two (2) forces, love and strife, that alt ernately synthesize and separate those elements. Empedocles was also the first philosopher to suggest a theory of perception, and he offered a theory of evolution that emphasized a rudimentary form of natural selection.

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