Deutsch: Freundschaft / Español: amistad / Português: amizade / Français: amitié / Italiano: amicizia

In psychology, friendship refers to a mutual, interpersonal bond, excluding sexual or family relations, that is usually characterized by a significant level of understanding, trust, and affection. Friendships are considered crucial for psychological well-being and social development, playing a central role in influencing personal growth, emotional health, and resilience.


Friendships in psychology are viewed as dynamic relationships that provide emotional support, companionship, and shared joy, and that also play a role in identity formation and socialization. These relationships are studied in terms of how they affect individuals' development, the coping mechanisms they provide, and their impact on mental health across the lifespan. Psychological theories, such as attachment theory, social exchange theory, and developmental psychology, provide frameworks for understanding the various aspects and benefits of friendship.

Application Areas

Friendship impacts several psychological domains:

  • Developmental psychology: Examines how friendships influence growth and social skills from childhood through adulthood.
  • Clinical psychology: Considers the role of friendships in mental health support and therapy.
  • Social psychology: Studies the functions of friendships in group dynamics, social support systems, and individual health.

Well-Known Examples

A prominent psychological framework involving friendships is the work of developmental psychologist Erik Erikson, who identified intimacy vs. isolation as a critical stage in adult development, where forming healthy friendships is key to personal development. Another example is the research by psychologist Robert H. Hays, which found significant correlations between the quality and quantity of friendships and overall life satisfaction and happiness.

Treatment and Risks

Friendships can be both beneficial and risky for mental health:

  • Benefits: They provide a support network, decrease feelings of loneliness, boost self-esteem, and can even affect physical health positively.
  • Risks: Unhealthy or toxic friendships can lead to stress, depression, and anxiety. Loss of a close friend or conflict within friendships can also significantly impact mental health.

Symptoms, Therapy, and Healing

  • Therapy Techniques: Group therapy and social skills training often incorporate aspects of building and maintaining healthy friendships.
  • Healing Process: For individuals suffering from social isolation or interpersonal difficulties, establishing and maintaining friendships can be an essential part of recovery, providing emotional support and a sense of belonging.



In psychology, friendship is considered a fundamental human connection that nurtures emotional well-being, fosters psychological resilience, and provides critical social support. Understanding the dynamics of healthy friendships helps psychologists support their clients in developing more fulfilling interpersonal relationships.


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