Levels-of-processing theory of memory is an alternative to the modal view of memory, proposed by Craik and Lockhart, that postulates that memory depends not on a particular memory store but on the initial processing done to the information at the time of acquisition . "Shallow" or "superficial" levels of processing , as in the processing at the level of visual shape or acoustic sound are thought to lead to less retention than "deeper" levels of processing such as in processing done on the meaning of the information.

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