Balance Theory refers to the formulations of Heider and of Newcomb that specify the relationships among (a) an individual's liking for another person; (b) his or her Attitude about given topic;

and; the other person's attitude about the same topic. Balance- liking plus agreement results in a positive emotional state. Imbalance - liking plus disagreement results in a negative state and a desire to restore balance. Nonbalance - disliking plus either agreement or disagreement leads to indifference. See also P-O-X theory.