Sickle cell anemia refers to a group of inheritable genetic conditions in which there is an abnormality of the hemoglobin - the protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the various organs of the body.

In Sickle cell disorders, some of the red blood cells form a sickle shape following the release of oxygen, which causes them to clump together making their passage through smaller blood vessels difficult. Sickle cell disorders mainly occur in people whose ancestors are of African, African-Caribbean, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Indian origins. Attacks may be precipitated by cold, dehydration, or infections. The most common symptoms are episodic pain in the joints, bones, abdomen and other parts of the body, known as "painful crises". Other problems associated with the condition may affect the spleen or cause blood in the urine, jaundice, strokes, eye problems, leg ulcers, enuresis and delayed puberty.

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