Spina bifida refers to a congenital developmental disorder or disability characterized by an opening in the spinal cord, commonly found in the lower region of the cord.

The disorder is a consequence of a failure of the posterior end of the neural tube to close during gestation ; disorder in which the embryo ’s neural tube does not close properly; a bulging of the spinal cord through a gap in the spinal column. It is a developmental disability resulting from the incorrect development of the spinal cord during early pregnancy. There are three (3) main types of Spina bifida: 1. Spina bifida occulta - where the only sign of the malformation is a hair or dimple at the site of the defect on the skin of the back. 2. Spina bifida cystica - where a sac or cyst is visible on the back covered by a thin layer of skin. 3. Cranium bifida - a failure of development of the bones of the skull.

List of books: Spina,bifida

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