- Top-down processing (Knowledge-based processing) : Top-down processing (knowledge-based processing) is the processing that starts with the analysis of high-level information, such as the knowledge a person brings to a situation; applying higher-level knowledge to rapidly organize sensory information into a meaningful perception. It is a cognitive processes that begin with knowledge of concepts (contrast with Bottom-up processing) It is also called Knowledge-based processing and is distinguished from bottom-up, or data-based processing , which is based on incoming data.

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