Adaptations also refers to the continuous, change-oriented, cognitive , sensory-perceptual, and behavioral processes people use to sustain or improve the fit between themselves and their environment.

It is a characteristic that an organism possesses because the forces of natural selection operating during that organism's evolution made that particular characteristic advantageous. For example, long necks are adaptations that gave giraffes an advantage in reaching food and spotting predators. It has been proposed that the capacity for language is an adaptation that humans have because the ability to communicate gave humans a survival advantage.

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