Deutsch: DSM-IV-TR / Español: DSM-IV-TR / Português: DSM-IV-TR / Français: DSM-IV-TR / Italiano: DSM-IV-TR

The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, published in 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) A tool used by the psychological and medical communities to identify and classify behavioural, cognitive and emotional problems according to a standard numerical coding system of mental disorders.

In psychology, the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) refers to a 2000 revision of the fourth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This manual is used widely in the United States and around the world as a primary tool for diagnosing mental disorders.


The DSM-IV-TR offers criteria for the diagnosis of mental disorders along with detailed descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnostic accuracy. Its primary purpose is to provide a standardized language and framework for clinicians, researchers, and regulatory agencies for the diagnosis, treatment, and research of mental health conditions.

This text revision did not change the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV but updated the text considering recent research to make it more useful for clinicians and researchers. The manual is organized into a five-part axis system, which helps clinicians consider the broad spectrum of factors that can influence mental health:

  • Axis I: Clinical Syndromes, such as depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders.
  • Axis II: Personality Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities.
  • Axis III: General Medical Conditions that might be relevant to mental disorders.
  • Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems.
  • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale.

Application Areas

The DSM-IV-TR is utilized across various domains within psychology and mental health:

  • Clinical psychology and psychiatry: For diagnosing and treating mental health conditions.
  • Research: As a standard framework for data collection and understanding psychological conditions.
  • Educational settings: Training future psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals.

Well-Known Examples

The DSM-IV-TR has been foundational in standardizing the understanding and treatment of mental disorders across different health services. It has facilitated research and discussion across various platforms and specialties by providing a common diagnostic language.

Treatment and Risks

The use of the DSM-IV-TR in treatment planning includes identifying appropriate therapeutic interventions and understanding potential treatment outcomes based on standardized diagnostic categories. However, it also poses risks, such as the potential for overdiagnosis or the reduction of complex individual experiences to categorical diagnoses.

Similar Terms

  • ICD-10: The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, is a global health information standard for morbidity and mortality statistics, which includes a chapter on mental and behavioral disorders, often used in conjunction with the DSM.
  • DSM-5: The subsequent edition of the DSM, released in 2013, which replaced the multi-axial system with a new organizational structure and included several new diagnoses.


The DSM-IV-TR is a crucial tool in the field of psychology and psychiatry, providing comprehensive criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. It facilitates a universal language for discussing and managing mental health issues, though it must be used with an understanding of its limitations and in the context of thorough clinical assessment.


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