Fuzzy-trace theory refers to the theory proposed by Brainerd and Reyna that postulates that people encode experiences on a continuum from literal, verbatim traces to fuzzy, ghost-like traces. Likewise, it is Brainerd and Reyna's theory that proposes that information is encoded on a continuum from verbatim to fuzzy, ghost-like traces, and that developmental differences in many aspects of cognition can be attributed to age differences in encoding and in differences in sensitivity to output interference .

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