ZPD is the abbreviations of Zone of proximal development. Zone of proximal development refers to Vygotsky’s term for:

(1) the range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partner.

(2) the space between what one is capable of learning independently and the potential of what one can learn by participating with more capable others.

(3) the situation in which a child carries out tasks with the help of someone who is more skilled, frequently an adult who represents the culture in which the child develops.