Deutsch: Neurologie / Español: Neurología / Português: Neurologia / Français: Neurologie / Italiano: Neurologia

In the context of psychology, neurology refers to the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. While neurology is distinct from psychology, the two fields overlap significantly in areas where brain function affects behavior, cognition, and emotions.

General Description

Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system. Psychologists often work closely with neurologists when a psychological issue has a clear physiological basis, such as in cases of neurological disorders that impact cognitive functions or behavior, including Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, or multiple sclerosis.

Application Areas

In psychology, understanding neurological foundations is essential for:

  • Clinical Psychology: Treatment of mental health issues with a basis in brain dysfunction.
  • Cognitive Neuroscience: Studying how brain function relates to cognitive processes like memory, language, and consciousness.
  • Neuropsychology: A subfield of psychology that addresses the relationships between brain health and behavior, focusing on how injuries or illnesses of the brain affect psychological processes.

Well-Known Examples

Famous neurological cases that have informed psychological understanding include Phineas Gage, whose mid-19th century accident led to significant personality changes after a brain injury, and H.M. (Henry Molaison), whose case taught us much about memory after portions of his brain were surgically removed to treat epilepsy.

Treatment and Risks

In the interface of neurology and psychology, treatment often involves medication, surgical interventions for severe neurological conditions, and behavioral therapies to manage the psychological effects of these conditions. The risks include misdiagnosis and the potential side effects of neurological treatments, which can sometimes exacerbate psychological symptoms.

Similar Terms

Related terms include "psychiatry," which is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Psychiatry often overlaps with neurology, particularly in areas involving biochemical or structural abnormalities in the brain.


In psychology, neurology is recognized for its fundamental role in understanding how various parts of the nervous system affect mental processes and behaviors. This recognition fosters a multidisciplinary approach, combining neurological and psychological knowledge to treat disorders that span both fields effectively.