Deutsch: Studie / Español: Estudio / Português: Estudo / Français: Étude / Italiano: Studio

In the psychology context, study refers to a structured investigation or research aimed at understanding, explaining, and predicting aspects of human behavior and mental processes. This involves the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data to gain insights into cognitive functions, emotions, interpersonal dynamics, and other psychological phenomena. Studies in psychology can vary widely in their methods, ranging from experimental designs to observe cause-and-effect relationships, to observational or correlational studies that explore associations between variables without manipulating them.


Psychological studies are foundational to the discipline, allowing researchers to explore complex questions about the human mind and behavior. These studies can take various forms, including:

  • Experimental Studies: These involve manipulating one or more independent variables to observe their effect on dependent variables. This method is widely used to establish causal relationships within psychology.
  • Observational Studies: Researchers observe subjects in natural or controlled settings without intervention. This approach is often used to study behaviors or phenomena that cannot be ethically or practically manipulated.
  • Surveys and Questionnaires: These are used to collect data on individuals' attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors through self-report.
  • Case Studies: An in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event to explore phenomena within a real-life context.
  • Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Studies: Longitudinal studies follow the same subjects over a period, while cross-sectional studies compare different groups at one point in time.

Application Areas

Psychological studies are applied across various domains to understand and address issues related to mental health, educational outcomes, organizational behavior, and social dynamics, among others. For example, in clinical psychology, studies might investigate the efficacy of different therapies for depression. In social psychology, research could explore how group dynamics influence individual behavior.

Well-Known Examples

One of the most famous psychological studies is the Stanford Prison Experiment, which explored the psychological effects of perceived power and powerlessness. Another example is the Milgram Experiment, which examined obedience to authority figures, demonstrating that people are likely to follow orders that conflict with their personal conscience under certain conditions.

Treatment and Risks

The design and conduct of psychological studies involve various ethical considerations to ensure the welfare and rights of participants are protected. This includes informed consent, confidentiality, and the right to withdraw. Misinterpretation or misuse of study findings can lead to ethical and social risks, including the stigmatization of individuals or groups and the implementation of ineffective or harmful policies.

Similar Terms or Synonyms

  • Research
  • Investigation
  • Experiment
  • Analysis


  • 'Study' in the glossary of the

Articles with 'Study' in the title

  • Adoption Study: Adoption Study refers to a method of comparing genetic versus environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the Incidence of disorders in children whose biological parents have diagnosed psychological disorders but whose rearing par . . .
  • Analogue study: Analogue study refers to a investigation that attempts to replicate or simulate, under controlled conditions, a situation that occurs in real life. Likewise it is research procedure which studies behaviours that resemble mental disorders . . .
  • Case study: Case study refers to a research design for in-depth investigation of a person or small group of individuals. This research design is not a reliable source for generalized statements beyond those investigated in the study
  • Case Study Method: A Case Study Method refers to a research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. The method does not allow conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships, and findings can be generalized only with great cau . . .
  • Case study method: Case study method : Case study method refers to an intensive study of a single person described in detail. Other /More definition: Case study method refers to a research method consisting of the intensive description or study of one perso . . .
  • Cohort sequential study: Cohort sequential study : Cohort sequential study refers to a research design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal methods. Cohorts consist of participants in a certain age group
  • Cohort study: Cohort study : Cohort study is a study in which some specific sub-population, or cohort, is studied over time, although data may be collected from different members in each set of observations
  • Correlational study: Correlational study: correlational study refers to a research procedure in which variables are measured and compared to detect any association but are not manipulated
  • Cross-Sectional Study: Cross-Sectional Study refers to a a study in which separate groups of subjects at different ages are compared. For example, a study in which the intelligence of a group of ten-year-olds on a language comprehension test is compared to the pe . . .
  • Crossfostering study: Crossfostering study refers to a method of comparing genetic versus environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the incidence of disorders in children who are adopted by parents with psychological disorders but whose biological pa . . .
  • Diary study: Diary study refers to a questionnaire method in which participants write answers to specified questions in a diary or notebook, either at specified times or when prompted by an electronic pager
  • Longitudinal study: Longitudinal study refers to a study that collects different types of data, example of which are early experiences, gender , education, personality characteristics on a regular basis and tracks the development of a group of children over a . . .
  • Panel study: Panel study refers to a type of longitudinal study, in which data are collected from the same set of people (the sample or panel) at several points in time
  • Placebo control group in a therapy outcome study: Placebo control group in a therapy outcome study : Placebo control group in a therapy outcome study : Placebo Control Group in a therapy outcome study refers to a Group of people whose treatment is an inactive- substance to compare with t . . .
  • Twin study: Twin study: twin study is a term in Genetics research which refers to the comparison of twins with unrelated or less closely related individuals. If twins, particularly monozygotic twins who share identical genotypes, share common character . . .
  • Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) was designed to measure current level of depressive symptomatology, and especially depressive affect
  • Correlational studies: Correlational studies refer to studies designed to yield information concerning the degree of relationship between two (2) variables. It is a non-experimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship, if any, between two (2) or . . .
  • Cross-Cultural Studies: Cross-Cultural Studies: Cross-cultural studies in psychology explore the ways in which culture influences psychological processes, behaviors, and attitudes
  • Effectiveness studies: Effectiveness studies refer to studies that emphasize external validity and the representativeness of the treatment that is administered. A treatment is considered effective to the extent that clients report clinically significant benefit f . . .
  • Efficacy studies: Efficacy studies refer to assessments of therapeutic effectiveness based on well-controlled investigation of well-defined clinical problems. Efficacy studies is also defined as studies that place a premium on internal validity by controllin . . .
  • Familial studies of intelligence: Familial studies of intelligence is defined as studies in which some measure or measures of intelligence among people of a known genetic relationship are correlated- the extent to which performance varies as a function of genetic similarity . . .
  • Hawthorne studies: Hawthorne studies refer to a series of studies conducted at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, Illinois, that have come to represent any change in behavior when people react to a change in the environment
  • Longitudinal studies: Longitudinal studies are studies in which a group of individuals is investigated over a relatively long period of time- analysis that focuses on studies of a particular group conducted repeatedly over a period of time
  • Observational studies: Observational studies are correlational investigations in which researchers watch participants and code measures from the observed behavior, either "live" or from videotapes
  • Prospective studies: Prospective studies refer to longitudinal studies that begin with a disease-free group of subjects and follow the occurrence of disease in that population or sample


In psychology, a study is a methodical approach to investigating questions about the mind and behavior. Through a range of methodologies, psychological studies seek to uncover the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and emotional processes, social interactions, and more. The rigorous application of ethical standards ensures the integrity and applicability of research findings to real-world challenges, contributing to our understanding of human nature and the improvement of psychological interventions.


Related Articles

Scrutiny at■■■■■■■■■■
Scrutiny in the psychology context refers to the close, critical examination or observation of one's . . . Read More
Inquiry at■■■■■■■■■■
Inquiry in the psychology context refers to the process of exploring, investigating, or questioning psychological . . . Read More