In psychology, ambiguity refers to a lack of clarity or definiteness in information or stimuli. Ambiguity can arise from vague or unclear statements, conflicting information, or complex and confusing situations.

Examples of ambiguity in psychology include:

  1. Ambiguous figures: Visual stimuli, such as the famous image of the duck-rabbit, that can be perceived in multiple ways.

  2. Ambiguous words: Words or phrases that have multiple meanings, such as "bank" (a financial institution or a river's edge).

  3. Ambiguous intentions: Social situations in which the intentions or motivations of others are unclear.

  4. Ambiguous instructions: Directions or tasks that are unclear or difficult to understand.

Studies in psychology have shown that ambiguity can have significant impacts on cognitive processing and behavior. For example, individuals tend to experience higher levels of anxiety and stress in ambiguous situations, and they may engage in more cautious or conservative decision-making to reduce the uncertainty. Additionally, individuals may adopt various coping strategies, such as seeking additional information or relying on prior experiences, to reduce ambiguity and make sense of the situation.

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