Autosomal is a term that is used in genetics to refer to chromosomes that are not the sex chromosomes (X and Y). Autosomes are numbered chromosomes that are present in both males and females, and are not responsible for determining an individual's sex.
In psychology, autosomal chromosomes may be studied as part of research on inherited traits and genetic influences on behavior and mental processes. For example, researchers may examine the role of specific genes or genetic variations on personality traits, cognitive abilities, or susceptibility to certain mental disorders.
Examples of autosomal traits might include eye color, height, and certain medical conditions that are inherited in a pattern known as autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal genetic disorders may be caused by mutations in genes located on autosomal chromosomes, and may be more common in certain populations due to genetic predispositions.