Vicarious reinforcement refers to a form of learning in which a new behavior is acquired through the process of watching someone else receive reinforcement for the same behavior.

In the psychology context, vicarious reinforcement refers to the idea that an individual can learn new behaviors or habits by observing others being reinforced (rewarded) for those behaviors. Vicarious reinforcement occurs when an individual observes the consequences of another person's behavior and learns from those consequences, even if they do not experience the consequences themselves.

For example, a child may learn to brush their teeth every day by observing their parents being praised and rewarded for brushing their teeth, even if the child is not directly reinforced for brushing their teeth. Similarly, a student may learn to study hard and get good grades by observing their peers being praised and rewarded for their academic achievements, even if the student is not directly reinforced for their own achievements.

Vicarious reinforcement can be an effective way for individuals to learn new behaviors and habits, and it can be especially powerful when the reinforcement is perceived as being positive or desirable. Vicarious reinforcement can also be a useful tool for parents, teachers, and other caregivers to use when teaching and shaping the behavior of others.