**Problem space** refers to the universe of all possible actions that can be applied to solving a problem, given any constraints that apply to the solution of the problem.

In psychology, a problem space refers to the mental representation of a problem, which includes all the possible paths and solutions that can be taken to solve the problem. It is the conceptual space in which people formulate and try to solve problems.

Examples of problem spaces can be found in various fields such as mathematics, physics, and computer programming. For instance, a mathematician may have to solve a complex equation, and the problem space would involve understanding the different possible ways to approach the equation, such as using algebraic formulas or calculus.

In computer programming, a problem space can refer to the set of possible inputs and outputs that a program can handle. Programmers may have to solve problems related to data structures, algorithms, or user interfaces, and the problem space would include all the possible scenarios that could arise when trying to solve these problems.

In psychology, problem spaces are studied in the context of problem-solving and decision-making. Researchers investigate how people generate and evaluate different solutions in problem spaces, and how they use heuristics and cognitive biases to navigate through them. The study of problem spaces can also help us understand how to design effective educational and training programs that improve problem-solving skills.