Glossary A

Authoritative refers to a child-rearing style in which parents are restrictive and demanding yet communicative and warm; style of democratic parenting characterized by the belief in authority that is based on competence or expertise .

Authoritative instruction refers to a warm but controlling style of instruction in which the teacher makes many demands but also allows some autonomy and individual expression as long as students are staying within the guidelines that the teacher has set

Authoritative parents refer to parents who set high but realistic standards, reason with the child, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence .

Authoritative-reciprocal pattern refers to a pattern of child rearing in which parents exercise considerable power but also respond to the child's point of view and reasonable demands.

Authoritism refers to ritualism that can occur during Erikson’s seventh stage of development.

Authority relations refer to all the hierarchical relationships that give one person decision-making authority and supervisory control over another.

Autism refers to a severe pervasive developmental disorder characterized by profound problems in social interaction, communication, and stereotyped behaviour, interests, and activities.

Autistic aloneness refers to a term proposed by Leo Kanner in his description of autistic children, referring to one of the central symptoms of the disorder, namely, the profound separation and disconnection of autistic individuals from other people.