works of Aristotle strongly influenced subsequent Western philosophers.
means avoiding a problem by walking away, ignoring what is happening, refusing to participate in a conflict situation.
Avoidance behavior refer to behavior that occurs before the aversive stimulus is presented and therefore prevents its delivery.
Avoidance conditioning refers to a kind of learning in which specific stimuli are identified as painful or unpleasant and are therefore avoided.
contingency : Avoidance contingency refers to the situation in which the organism can avoid an aversive stimulus by engaging in appropriate activity.
Avoidance coping strategies refer to coping strategies designed to distract people from thinking about the source of anxiety .
goals : Avoidance goals refers to the goals framed in terms of avoiding unpleasant experiences, such as trying not to look foolish in public.
learning refers to the avoidance of events or conditions associated with dreaded or aversive outcomes.