Glossary A

absolute VO2 refers to the amount of oxygen consumed over a given time period; expressed as liters • min1.

Absorbed is when drugs have entered the bloodstream

Absorption refers to the ability to become highly involved in sensory and imaginative experiences. Likewise, Absroption refers to the devotion of thought to one object and activity with inattention to others.

Absorption spectrum refers to a plot of the amount of light absorbed by a visual pigment versus the wavelength of light.

Abstinence when the Psychoanalysts refrain from psychologically participating in clients' expressions of feelings , wishes, and fan

The Abstinence syndrome refers to a characteristic cluster of symptoms that results from a sudden decrease in the level of usage of a substance.

Abstinence violation effect refers to the guilt and perceived loss  of control that a person feels whenever he or she slips and finds himself or herself returning to drug use after an extended period of abstinence.

- abstinence violation effect : abstinence violation effect refers to what happens when a person attempting to abstain from alcohol use ingests alcohol and then endures conflict and guilt by making an internal attribution to explain why he or she drank, thereby making him or her more likely to continue drinking in order to cope with the self -blame and guilt

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