Glossary B

Background stressors refer to crowding and noise, together with air pollution and chemical pollution which can be the cause long- term stressors and affect a large number of people.

Backtracking refers to a problem-solving technique that involves keeping track of where in the solving process assumptions are made, so they may later be changed.

Backward pairing is a term in classical conditioning referring to the presentation of the unconditional stimulus (US) before the conditoned stimulus (CS). (see Delayed pairing , Trace pairing, Simultaneous pairing.)

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) refers to bacterial infection that can cause vaginal discharge and odor but is usually asymptomatic.

Bad apple effect refers to the idea that one (1) social loafer can cause other people to loaf as well

Baddeley - Central executive system is a term used in Baddeley’s model of working memory (short-term memory or STM) which is concerned with regulating the flow of information from sensory storage, processing it for long-term storage, and retrieving it from long-term storage.

Bait shyness refers to an unwillingness or hesitation on the part of animals to eat a particular food.

Bait-and-switch refers to influence technique based on commitment , in which one draws people in with an attractive offer that is unavailable and then switches them to a less attractive offer that is available

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