Glossary P

Papilloma or Human papilloma virus refers to wart-like growth on the genitals. Papilloma is also called Venereal wart, Condylomata , or Genital wart. (See Human papilloma virus)

Parabelt area refers to the auditory area in the temporal lobe that receives signals from the belt area.

Paradigm is defined as a body of knowledge that selects and highlights certain issues for study. It includes assumptions about how a particular phenomenon ought to be studied and the kinds of experimental methods and measures that are appropriate to use. It is a model or framework for observation and understanding, which shapes both what people see and how they understand it. Paradigm, moreover, is a term which is used to describe a set of rules and regulations that establish boundaries and explain how to be successful solving problems within the given boundaries.
Paradigmatic stage is a stage which according to Kuhn, is the stage in the development of a science during which scientific activity is guided by a Paradigm. That is, it is during this stage that normal science occurs. Please see Paradigm and also Normal science.

Paradox refers to a statement that appears contradictory or absurd yet in fact may be true. Paradox is also defined as a self -contradictory statement that appears true or is derived from true statements.

Paradox of the basins refers to Locke's observation that warm water will feel either hot or cold depending on whether a hand is first placed in hot water or cold water. Because water cannot be hot and cold at the same time, temperature must be a secondary, not a primary, quality.
Paradoxical means contrary to what is expected. A Paradoxical drug effect is opposite in direction to what is expected based on the drug’s chemical structure

Paradoxical intention refers to a technique described by Frankl in which the client is told to consciously attempt to perform the very behavior or response that is the object of anxiety or concern. The Paradox is that the person will often be unable to do what he/she fears doing when he/she tries to do it intentionally. Paradoxical intention, moreover, is a therapeutic strategy in which clients are instructed to engage and exaggerate behaviors that they seek to change. By prescribing the symptom, therapists make patients more aware of their situation and help them achieve distance from the symptoms. For example, a patient who is afraid of mice may be asked to exaggerate his fear of mice, or a patient who hoards paper may be asked to exaggerate that behavior so that living becomes difficult. In this way individuals can become more aware of and more distant from their symptoms.

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