Deutsch: Selbst / Español: Yo / Português: Eu / Français: Soi-même / Italiano: Sé stessi /

Self refers to a continuing inner sense of our personhood that organizes our perceptions of our experience. Includes feelings of worth, individuality, our relationship to others and the world, and our basic comfort or anxiety level.

Self is the awareness of one's being and functioning as separate and distinct from all else; an archetype that is the center of personality and provides organization and integration of the personality through a process of individuation.


The concept of 'Self' in psychology refers to an individual's personal identity and sense of who they are. It encompasses their thoughts, feelings, beliefs, values, and experiences that make up their unique personality. The self plays a crucial role in shaping one's behavior, motivations, and decision-making processes. It is influenced by various factors such as upbringing, culture, relationships, and life experiences. The development of self-awareness and self-esteem are important aspects of psychological growth and well-being. Understanding the self can help individuals navigate through challenges, build healthy relationships, and achieve personal fulfillment.

Application Areas

  • Self-esteem building
  • Self-concept exploration
  • Identity formation
  • Personal growth and development
  • Therapeutic interventions

Treatment and Risks

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Self-reflection exercises
  • Risks of low self-esteem leading to depression
  • Risks of distorted self-perception affecting relationships


  • Self-identity crisis in adolescence
  • Self-defeating behaviors in adults
  • Self-affirmations for improving self-esteem

Similar Concepts and Synonyms

  • Self-concept
  • Self-awareness
  • Self-perception
  • Identity

Articles with 'Self' in the title

  • Adaptive self-organization: Adaptive self-organization: Adaptive self-organization refers to the process by which an open system retains its essential identity when confronted with new and constant environmental conditions
  • Awareness as Self-Conciousness: Awareness as Self-Conciousness refers to May's two (2) aspect of Awareness: (1) Awareness as Self-Conciousness the ability to sense and integrate information about oneself, itself has two- (2) dimensions: subjective and objective
  • Behavioral self-report: Behavioral self-report: Behavioral self-report refers to a method of behavioral Assessment in which the person (client) provides information about the frequency of his/her particular behaviors
  • Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Breast Self-Examination (BSE) : Breast Self-Examination (BSE) refers to the monthly practice of checking the breasts to detect alterations in the underlying tissue
  • Categorical self: Categorical self refers to a person’s classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex- definitions of the self that refer to concrete external traits
  • Cognitive self-guidance system: Cognitive self-guidance system : Cognitive self-guidance system is a term in Vygotsky’s theory which refers to the use of private speech to guide problem-solving behavior
  • Computer-assisted self-interview: Computer-assisted self-interview: Computer-assisted self-interview or CASI refers to a method of data collection in which the respondent fills out questionnaires on a computer
  • Content self-disclosure: Content self-disclosure: Content self-disclosure refers to a type of self-disclosure in which the clinician reveals information about himself or herself
  • Creative self: Creative self is a term which according to Adler refers to the component of the personality that provides humans with the freedom to choose their own destinies
  • Dangerousness to self: Dangerousness to self refers to a legal criterion for involuntary commitment that is met when a person is imminently suicidal or a danger to him/herself as judged by a mental-health professional
  • Extended self: Extended self refers to the more mature self-representation, emerging between ages 3½ and 5 years, in which children are able to integrate past, present, and unknown future self-representations into a notion of a "self" that endures over . . .
  • False self: False self it is when good-enough mothering is not available in infancy, children may act as they believe they are expected to. Basically, they adopt their mother’s self rather than develop their own
  • False self-behavior: False self-behavior is acting in ways that do not reflect one’s true self or the "true me."- False self-behavior is a concept in psychology that refers to a person's tendency to act in ways that do not accurately reflect their true . . .
  • Grandiose self: Grandiose Self- Through Mirroring the child by age of three (3) develops an object called the Grandiose self, denoting the Self as perfect and the center of attention
  • Independent self: Independent self refers to a view of oneself as an independent person whose behavior is determined mainly by one's own internal characteristics. According to Face-negotiation theory, Independent self is the self-construal of individuals . . .
  • Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline: Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline: Insufficient Self-Control /Self-Discipline refers to the sense that a person cannot accomplish his goals, especially if the process contains boring, repetitive, or frustrating aspects
  • Looking glass self: Looking glass self refers to the tendency to internalize other people’s judgments about us into our self-concept. Looking glass self is the idea that we see ourselves through the eyes of other people and incorporate their views into our . . .
  • Personal rule (Self-instruction): Personal rule (Self-instruction) refers to a verbal description of a contingency that humans present to themselves to influence their behavior.
  • Phenomenal self: Phenomenal self refers to the part of the phenomenal field that the person experiences as "me." According to Phenomenological theory, humans have a basic urge to preserve and enhance the Phenomenal self
  • Positive self-regard: Positive self-regard: Positive self-regard refers to the Condition under which we (ourselves) grant ourselves Acceptance and approval- thinking of oneself as a good, lovable, and worthwhile person
  • Positive Self-Talk: In the psychology context, Positive Self-Talk refers to the practice of speaking to oneself in an encouraging and affirming manner. It involves consciously shifting internal dialogues from critical or negative to supportive and . . .
  • Present Self: Present Self refers to early self-representation in which 2- and 3-year-old children recognize current representations of self but are largely unaware that past self-representations or self-relevant events have implications for the future
  • Private self (or I): Private self refers to a person's inner uniqueness and unity and the subjective experience of being the originator of one's thoughts and actions and of being self-reflective
  • Self Construals: Self Construals refer to the ways of thinking about yourself and what bring you happiness: - 1) Independent self-construal when a person see oneself as unique, stable, and has the ability- to take care of oneself- 2) Interdependent self- . . .
  • Self Control Theory: Self Control Theory: Self-Control Theory, in the context of psychology, refers to a framework that examines how individuals regulate their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors to achieve long-term goals, often in the face of short-term . . .
  • Self determination: Self determination: In the psychology context, self-determination refers to the concept of individuals having the ability and freedom to make choices and control their own lives
  • Self-Actualization: Self-Actualization refers to the process of reaching one's personal goals. According to Maslow, includes self- expression, creatively, connectedness, meaning, purpose, and direction in life
  • Self-actualizing: Self-actualizing: self-actualizing refers to the process emphasized in Humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences
  • Self-Characterization Sketch: Self-Characterization Sketch : Self-Characterization Sketch refers to a technique designed to assess a person's construct system- that is, how a person perceives himself or herself in relation to other people
  • Self-Concept: Self-Concept: Self-concept refers to the the contents of the self - that is, our perception of our own thoughts, beliefs, and personality traits - a collection of beliefs about one's basic nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
  • Self-confidence: Self-confidence is the confidence one has in oneself, one’s knowledge, and one’s abilities. It is the confidence of the type: "I can do this". " I have the ability to do this"
  • Self-control: The self-control is shown with respect to choice between two rewards, selecting a larger later reward over a smaller sooner reward. In the context of psychology, self-control refers to the ability of an individual to regulate their . . .
  • Self-defeating behavior: Self-defeating behavior refers to any action by which people bring failure, suffering, or misfortune on themselves. Moreover, Self-defeating behavior is a seemingly intentional acts that thwart a person's self-interest
  • Self-disclosure: Self-disclosure refers to the process in which therapists or counselors discuss aspects of their own lives in Order to enhance therapeutic progress with clients
  • Self-Doubt: In the psychology context, Self-Doubt refers to a state of uncertainty or lack of confidence in one's abilities, decisions, or self-worth. It is a common psychological experience that can affect various aspects of life, including . . .
  • Self-efficacy: Self-efficacy refers to a sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, one's sense of self worth and that one is capable of performing the behaviors that will produce desired outcomes in any particular . . .
  • Self-Empowerment: In the psychology context, Self-Empowerment refers to the process through which individuals gain the strength and confidence to take control of their own lives, make their own decisions, and pursue their goals independently
  • Self-esteem: Self-esteem in psychology refers to an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of their own worth. It is the judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self
  • Self-evaluation maintenance theory: TheSelf-evaluation maintenance theory refers to the theory that one's self-concept can be threatened by another individual's behavior and that the level of threat is determined by both the closeness of the other individual and the personal . . .
  • Self-Examination: Self-Examination, in the context of psychology, refers to the deliberate and introspective process by which an individual explores and evaluates their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and beliefs
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy: Self-fulfilling prophecy: Self-fulfilling prophecy refers to the tendency for our expectations to evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated
  • Self-Handicapping: Self-Handicapping is protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure. Self-Handicapping is creating obstacles and excuses for ourselves, so that if we do poorly on a task, we have ready-made excuses
  • Self-harm: Self-harm refers to a wide range of things that people do to themselves in a deliberate and usually hidden way. It can involve various methods and degrees by which people may harm themselves- : cutting, burning, scalding, banging or . . .
  • Self-Help: Self-Help: Self-help or self-improvement is a self-guided improvement — economically, intellectually, or emotionally — often with a substantial psychological basis
  • Self-help Aids: Self-help Aids: Self-help Aids refer to materials that can be used by an individual on his or her own without the aid of a therapist to assist in the modification of a personal habit - often used to combat s moking and other health-related . . .
  • Self-image: The Self-image is a total subjective perception of one's body and personality (another term for self-concept). In psychology, self-image refers to the mental picture a person has of themselves, which is a component of their broader self- . . .
  • Self-injurious behavior (SIB): Self-injurious behavior (SIB) refers to a severe and sometimes life-threatening acts that cause damage to the subject’s own body, such as head banging, eye gouging, severe scratching, rumination, some types of pica, and inserting objects . . .
  • Self-instructional training: Self-instructional training: self-instructional training means teaching children to use verbal cues to process information, which are initially taught by the therapist or teacher, to keep themselves on task
  • Self-monitoring: Self-monitoring refers to a self-report technique in which the client (patient) keeps a record of the frequency of specified behaviors. Other /More definition: Self-monitoring is a characteristic tendency to use cues from other people to . . .
  • Self-perception theory: Self-perception theory: Self-Perception Theory is a psychological concept that suggests individuals infer their attitudes and emotions by observing their own behavior and the context in which it occurs
  • Self-Realization: In the psychology context, Self-Realization refers to the process of fulfilling one's potential and achieving one's own goals and desires in life. It encompasses personal growth, the discovery of one's true self, and the pursuit of . . .
  • Self-report clinical inventory: Self-report clinical inventory: Self-report clinical inventory refers to a psychological test with standardized questions having fixed response categories that the test-taker completes independently, self-reporting the extent to which the . . .
  • Self-representation: In psychology, "self-representation" pertains to the way individuals perceive and depict themselves to both themselves and others. It encompasses the multifaceted aspects of self-identity, self-concept, and self-presentation, all of . . .
  • Zung Self-rating Depression Scal: Zung Self-rating Depression Scal: Zung Self-rating Depression Scal refers to a test to measure depression. This test assesses symptoms of depression by using a self-rating system, therefore eliminating the possibility of an interviewer . . .


The 'Self' in psychology refers to an individual's personal identity and sense of who they are, encompassing thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and experiences. It plays a crucial role in shaping behavior, motivations, and decision-making processes. Understanding the self is essential for personal growth, healthy relationships, and overall well-being.


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