Glossary P

Paralanguage refers to all vocal cues other than the content of the verbal message itself.

Paralinguistics is concerned with factors of how words are spoken, that is, the volume, the intonation, the speed and many others.. In intercultural communication, Paralinguistic differences can be responsible for , mostly subconscious or stereotyped, confusion.

- Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models : Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models is the handling of very large numbers of cognitive operations at once through a network distributed across incalculable numbers of locations in the brain
Parallel fibers are axons that run parallel to one another but perpendicular to the planes of the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum
Parallel forms refer to two (2) alternative forms of a test

Parallel forms reliability refers to the method of reliability assessment used to evaluate the error associated with the use of a particular set of items. Equivalent forms of a test are developed by generating two (2) forms using the same rules. The correlation between the two (2) forms is the estimate of Parallel forms reliability.

Parallel muscles are muscles that have their fibers arranged parallel to the length of the muscle, such as flat, fusiform, strap, radiate, or sphincter muscles.

Parallel Play refers to a play where the child plays near or beside another child using some or all of the same/similar materials as the other child without trying to modify or influence the other child and being mainly concerned with toy materials, not with relating to the other child.

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