Glossary C

Cystic fibrosis refers to a fatal genetic disorder in which mucus obstructs the lungs and pancreas. Moreover, Cystic Fibrosis refers to an inherited condition that causes the sweat glands to produce excess salt, and the mucous glands to produce abnormally thick, adherent mucus. The two main areas of the body involved are the pancreas (part of the digestive system) and the lungs. In the pancreas, the small channels (through which the enzymes produced in the pancreas flow to reach the intestines) become blocked with mucus. This results in cysts forming and these lead to fibrosis in the pancreas. This is controlled by physiotherapy and drugs to help clear the mucus, and antibiotics to tackle the infections. The thick mucus also collects in the lungs, blocking some airways and resulting in damage from the infection. Much of this damage can be prevented by adequate treatment of infections.

Cystitis refers to the inflammation of the bladder. Cystitis can be due for example to infection from bacteria that ascend the urethra (the canal from the outside) to the bladder. Symptoms of Cystitis include a frequent need to urinate, often accompanied by a burning sensation. As Cystitis progresses, blood may be observed in the urine and the patient may suffer cramps after urination. In young children, attempts to avoid the pain of cystitis can be a cause for daytime wetting (enuresis ). Treatment includes avoiding irritants, such as perfumed soaps, near the urethral opening; increased fluid intake; and antibiotics. Untreated cystitis can lead to scarring and the formation of stones when urine is retained for long periods of time to avoid painful urination.

Cytoarchitectonic dysplasia refers to a focal pathologic change of the cellular organization of brain cells.

Cytokines refer to compounds from the immune system, some of which are involved with the level of sleepiness.

Cytomegalovirus refers to a virus that can lead to diarrhea, weight loss , headache, fever, confusion , or blurred vision.

Cytoplasm refer to the contents of the cell surrounding the nucleus . Cytoplasm is called Sarcoplasm in muscle cells.

Cytotoxicity is defined as the degree to which something is toxic to living cells and a measure of the strength of immune cells.

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