Glossary D

Decentralization is a term used in industrial and organizational psychology that refers to a process which occurs when lower-level employees have the right to make important decisions instead of management making all the decisions.
Deception refers to concealment of the purpose and procedures of a study from the participants.

Decibel is defined as a unit that indicates the presence of a tone relative to a reference pressure: dB 20 log (p/po) where p is the pressure of the tone and po is the reference pressure.

Decision analysis refers to a technology that helps people gather and integrate information in an optimal way.

Decision making refers to the process(es) by which an individual selects one course of action from among alternatives.

Decision structuring refers to the process(es) by which an individual establishes the criteria and options for consideration.
Decision tree refers to a strategy used for diagnosis , consisting of yes/no questions that guide clinicians in ruling in or out psychological disorders.

Decisions are generally the choices made around problem areas in organizations , which include: (1) Programmed decisions -the same type of decisions made regularly;. (2) Non-programmed decisions - decisions for which there are no previous case and examples to follow;. (3) Top-down decisions- are those made at senior levels in the company/organization; and (4) Empowered decisions - are those made at the lowest levels at which decisions can be made.