Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) likened ideas to Leibniz's monads by saying that they had energy and a consciousness of their own.
- Johannes Müller (1801 - 1858) : Johannes Müller expanded the Bell-Magendie law by demonstrating that each sense receptor, when stimulated, releases an energy specific to that particular receptor. This finding is called The Doctrine of specific nerve energies.
John B. Watson was born in 1878 in a rural community outside Greenville, South Carolina, where he attended the local country schools near his parents' farm.
- John Dewey (1859-1952) : John Dewey refers to a key person in the development of Functionalism . For some, The 1896 publication of Dewey's article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" marked the formal beginning of the school of Functionalism