shadowing is defined as the process of hiring individuals similar to those who are serving on a given jury and monitoring their reactions to the testimony as it is presented at the trial. The reactions of the shadow jurors are used to anticipate the reactions of the actual jurors and may serve as the basis for a shift in courtroom strategy.
punishment they receive at the hands of the law, and that punishments should be appropriate to the type and severity of crime committed. Just deserts, moreover is a philosophy of justice which asserts that the punishment should fit the crime and culpability of the offender. Please see also Retribution .
difference (JND) refers to the sensation that results if a change in stimulus intensity exceeds the differential threshold; any noticeable difference in a stimulus. Just noticeable difference (JND) is a term coined by Fechner that refers to the internal sensation evoked by one difference threshold and the basic unit defining an internal psychological scale. Please see also Differential threshold.