Protective factor refers to a variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and decreases the chances that the outcome will occur. There are varieties of personal and contextual protective factors that usually serve as foundation of effective therapy. Personal protective factors include, high IQ, easy temperament, high self esteem, an internal locus of control and high self efficacy. Other important protective factors are: mature defence mechanisms, functional coping strategies, and good problem solving skills. Within the family, secure parent-child attachment is an important protective factor.
Other /More definition:
Protective factor refers to a variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and decreases the chances that the outcome will occur.

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