Target-based expectancies refer to expectations about a person based on his or her past actions, such as expecting someone to go to the beach on vacation because he or she has always gone to the beach in the past.

In psychology, "target-based expectancies" refer to beliefs or predictions that an individual has about specific events, objects, or people based on their past experiences with similar targets. These expectancies can influence how people perceive, interpret, and respond to new information about the target.

Here are some examples of target-based expectancies in psychology:

  1. Example 1: A student who has consistently received high grades in math class may have a target-based expectancy that they will perform well on future math tests. As a result, they may approach studying and test-taking with confidence and optimism.

  2. Example 2: A person who has had negative experiences with dogs in the past may have a target-based expectancy that all dogs are aggressive and unpredictable. As a result, they may feel anxious and avoidant around dogs, even if the specific dog they encounter is friendly and well-behaved.

  3. Example 3: An employee who has received positive feedback from their boss for their work may have a target-based expectancy that their boss values and appreciates their contributions. As a result, they may feel motivated and engaged in their work.

  4. Example 4: A child who has been rewarded for sharing toys with others may have a target-based expectancy that sharing is a positive behavior that leads to rewards. As a result, they may be more likely to share in the future, even in situations where there is no explicit reward offered.

  5. Example 5: A person who has had successful romantic relationships in the past may have a target-based expectancy that they are capable of forming meaningful and fulfilling relationships. As a result, they may approach new romantic prospects with confidence.

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