Formal reasoning is defined as the type of reasoning in which the form of an argument , not its semantic content, is crucial;.
reasoning about problems with explicit premises, finite solutions, and well-defined operations.
Formant transition is defined as a rapid increase or decrease in frequency at the beginning of a formant.
In the speech stimulus, Formant transitions are the rapid shift in frequency that precedes a formant.
Formative assessment is defined as the process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information for the purpose of improving student learning while instruction is taking place; assessment for improvement, not grading.