Gain-loss effect refers to the finding that we like people the most if we feel we have gained in their estimation of us (i.e., if they initially disliked us but now like us) and that we dislike people the most if we feel we have lost their favor (i.e., if they initially liked us but now dislike us).
- Galen (A.D. 129–201) : Galen refers to a Roman anatomist and physician who identified many of the major brain structures and described behavioral changes as a function of brain trauma. He associated each of Hippocrates ' four (4) humors with a temperament , thus creating a rudimentary theory of personality . Galen is the physician of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius in Rome and lived from 129 to 216. he is one of the most influential of the Greek physicians and he published a wide body of work that shaped Western biomedicine.
- Galileo (1564-1642) : Galileo is one of the famous scientist who showed several of Aristotle's "truths" to be false and, by using a Telescope, extended the known number of bodies in the solar system to 11. Galileo argued that science could deal only with objective reality and that because human perceptions were subjective, they were outside the realm of science.