Glossary C

Cross-sequential study refers to a  study that follows a group of different-aged children for 2 or 3 years; can reliably identify antecedents and stability of behavior patterns during the course of the study.

Cross-tolerance refers to tolerance of a drug because of exposure to a different drug; tolerance to a drug or drugs never taken that results from protracted tolerance to another drug or drugs.

Cross-training is a term used in industrial and organizational psychology which means teaching employees how to perform tasks traditionally performed by other employees.

Crossfostering study refers to a method of comparing genetic versus environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the incidence of disorders in children who are adopted by parents with psychological disorders but whose biological parents are psychologically healthy.

Crossing-over refers to a process in which genetic material is exchanged between pairs of chromosomes during meiosis ; exchange of parts between two (2) chromosomes during replication.

Crossover refers to the transmission of stress between individuals. Crossover occurs when stress or strain experienced by an individual affects the stress or strain of another individual.

Crossover interaction refers to the reversal of the effect of one independent variable on a dependent variable at a certain level of a second independent variable.

Crowd refers to a large, loosely organized, reputationally based peer group made up of individuals and cliques that share similar norms, interests, attitudes and values, or who may or may not spend much time together and who are identified by the activities of the group; a large group that is usually recognized by a few predominant characteristics, such as the "preppies," the "jocks," "yuppies", or the "druggies", etc. Crowd is also defined as a gathering of individuals, usually in a public place, who are present in the same general vicinity and share a common focus.