Glossary I

Isometric exercise refers to exercise performed by contracting muscles against an immovable object.

Isotonic is a contraction in which a muscle shortens against a constant load or tension, resulting in movement; contraction occurring in which there is either shortening or lengthening in the muscle under tension Isotonic also known as a Dynamic contraction, and classified as being either concentric or eccentric.

Isotonic exercise is defined as an exercise that requires the contraction of muscles and the movement of joints, as in weight lifting.

Item refers to a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly and that can be scored or evaluated.

Item analysis refers to an assessment of whether each of the items included in a composite measure makes an independent contribution or merely duplicates the contribution of other items in the measure. Moreover, Item analysis is a set of methods used to evaluate test items. The most common techniques involve assessment of item difficulty and item discriminability .

Item characteristic curve refers to a graph prepared as part of the process of Item analysis . One graph is prepared for each test item and shows the total test score on the X axis and the proportion of test takers passing the item on the Y axis.

Item homogeneity refers to the extent to which test items measure the same construct .

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