pattern of responding in which an organism seems to evaluate a reward relative to other rewards that are available or that have been available recently.
control refers to a belief that one has available responses that can affect health status or the experience of stress
events, situations, people, locations, which act as stimuli that result in behaviors conditioned to be associated with them. When a smoker always smokes in his or her car, the car is a signal to the smoker’s body that nicotine is coming and makes smoking more likely.
data refer to observational reports about the behavior of organisms and the conditions under which the behavior occurs or changes.
definition of aggression refers to any action that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism
definition of altruism refers to behavior that benefits another person, regardless of the actor’s motives
treatment and actually doing so.
exercise and eating habits , rather than temporary self -starvation.