Explicit attitudes is defined as the consciously accessible attitudes that can be misrepresented by self-report; evaluations that people can report consciously controlled and conscious evaluative responses.
Explicit attitudes refer to conscious and intentional evaluations, opinions, or beliefs that individuals hold about people, objects, or events. These attitudes are usually measured through self-report measures, such as questionnaires or surveys, and individuals are asked to report their attitudes towards a specific topic, issue, or group of people. Explicit attitudes are conscious and can be deliberately controlled and communicated to others.
Examples of explicit attitudes include a person's attitude towards a particular political candidate, a brand of clothing, a sports team, or a particular race or gender. For instance, a person might have an explicit attitude that they believe in gender equality and support women's rights. Another example might be a person's explicit attitude towards a particular type of music or movie genre. People may express their explicit attitudes through verbal or written communication, such as expressing their opinions to others, writing an article or blog post, or filling out a survey.
Explicit attitudes can be influenced by a range of factors, including personal experiences, cultural values, social norms, media messages, and education. They can change over time and may be shaped by new information or experiences. For example, a person's explicit attitude towards a political issue may shift over time as they gain more information and experience with the issue.
Similar concepts to explicit attitudes include implicit attitudes and automatic attitudes. Implicit attitudes refer to unconscious evaluations or biases that individuals hold towards people, objects, or events. These attitudes are often outside of conscious awareness and can be measured using implicit measures, such as reaction time tasks or association tests. Automatic attitudes are similar to implicit attitudes but are more closely linked to behavioral responses. They refer to the automatic activation of attitudes in response to a stimulus or situation, and can be measured using behavioral measures, such as facial expressions or physiological responses.
Another related concept is cognitive dissonance, which refers to the mental discomfort or psychological stress that arises from holding two or more contradictory beliefs, values, or attitudes. This discomfort can lead to changes in attitudes, beliefs, or behavior in order to reduce the inconsistency and restore cognitive balance.
In conclusion, explicit attitudes are conscious and intentional evaluations, opinions, or beliefs that individuals hold about people, objects, or events. They are usually measured through self-report measures and can be influenced by a range of factors. Other related concepts include implicit attitudes, automatic attitudes, and cognitive dissonance, which are important in understanding how attitudes are formed and how they can change over time.