Glossary W

Deutsch: Schwächung / Español: Debilitamiento / Português: Enfraquecimento / Français: Affaiblissement / Italiano: Indebolimento

Weakening in the psychology context refers to the reduction or diminishment of a psychological response or behavior over time, often as a result of specific interventions or the absence of reinforcement. This process can occur naturally or be intentionally induced through various therapeutic techniques to help individuals manage maladaptive behaviors or responses.

Deutsch: Schwäche / Español: Debilidad / Português: Fraqueza / Français: Faiblesse / Italiano: Debolezza /

"Weakness" refers to personal limitations, vulnerabilities, or areas where an individual may struggle or experience difficulty. These weaknesses can manifest in various aspects of a person's psychological and emotional well-being, including personality traits, cognitive abilities, and emotional regulation. Understanding and addressing weaknesses is a fundamental part of psychological growth and well-being.

A Web of Causation is an epidemiologic model showing the complex interaction of risk factors associated with the development of chronic degenerative diseases.

Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) refers to an individually administered measure of intelligence, intended for adults aged 16-89. The WAIS is intended to measure human intelligence reflected in both verbal and performance abilities. Dr. David Wechsler, a clinical psychologist, who authored the test believed that intelligence is a global construct, reflecting a variety of measurable skills and should be considered in the context of the overall personality. The WAIS is also administered as part of a test battery to make inferences about personality and pathology.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) refers to an individually administered measure of intelligence intended for children aged six (6) years to 16 years and 11 months. The WISC is designed to measure human intelligence as reflected in both verbal and non-verbal (performance) abilities. David Wechsler, the author of the test, believed that intelligence has a global quality that reflects a variety of measurable skills. He also thought that it should be considered in the context of the person's overall personality. The WISC is used in schools as part of placement evaluations for programs for gifted children and for children who are developmentally disabled.

Deutsch: Gewichtheben / Español: Halterofilia / Português: Levantamento de Peso / Français: Haltérophilie / Italiano: Sollevamento pesi

Weightlifting in the psychology context refers to the mental, emotional, and cognitive aspects associated with the practice and discipline of lifting weights. This encompasses the psychological benefits, challenges, and strategies involved in training, motivation, and overall mental well-being.


In the psychology context, weightlifting is not only about physical strength but also about the mental resilience and cognitive processes that contribute to effective training and performance. Weightlifting requires a high degree of focus, discipline, and mental toughness. Athletes often engage in visualization techniques, goal-setting, and self-motivation strategies to enhance their performance and cope with the demands of rigorous training schedules.

Weightlifting also plays a significant role in mental health. Regular participation in weightlifting can lead to improved mood, reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, and increased self-esteem. The act of lifting weights triggers the release of endorphins, which are natural mood lifters. Additionally, achieving personal records and overcoming physical challenges can provide a sense of accomplishment and boost confidence.

The psychological aspect of weightlifting also includes managing stress and recovery. Athletes need to develop effective coping mechanisms to deal with the physical strain and mental fatigue that comes with intense training. This includes proper sleep, nutrition, and mental relaxation techniques. Understanding the mind-body connection is crucial for athletes to maintain balance and prevent burnout.

Historically, the recognition of the psychological elements in weightlifting has evolved, with more emphasis now placed on the mental preparation and mental health of athletes. Coaches and sports psychologists work closely with weightlifters to develop mental skills training programs that complement their physical training routines.


Weightlifting can be a powerful tool for personal development beyond the gym. The discipline and mental fortitude developed through weightlifting can translate into other areas of life, such as career, academics, and personal relationships. The skills of setting goals, persevering through challenges, and maintaining focus are universally beneficial.

Application Areas

  1. Competitive Sports: Weightlifters competing at various levels use psychological strategies to enhance performance and manage competition stress.
  2. Fitness and Health: Individuals engaging in weightlifting for personal fitness goals benefit from improved mental health and cognitive functioning.
  3. Rehabilitation: Weightlifting is used in physical and mental rehabilitation programs to aid recovery and build resilience.
  4. Youth Development: Incorporating weightlifting in youth programs helps in developing self-discipline, confidence, and a healthy body image.
  5. Military Training: Mental resilience and physical strength gained through weightlifting are crucial for military personnel.

Well-Known Examples

  • Olympic Weightlifters: Athletes like Pyrros Dimas and Lidia Valentín are known for their mental toughness and psychological preparation, which contribute to their success.
  • Powerlifters: Powerlifters such as Ed Coan and Jennifer Thompson exemplify the mental discipline required to excel in their sport.
  • Fitness Influencers: Figures like Arnold Schwarzenegger have popularized the psychological benefits of weightlifting, including goal-setting and self-motivation.
  • Rehabilitation Programs: Programs using weightlifting for mental health recovery in veterans and trauma survivors highlight its therapeutic potential.

Treatment and Risks

Weightlifting, while beneficial, also carries potential risks if not approached mindfully. Psychological risks include burnout, anxiety, and body image issues. To mitigate these risks, it is essential to maintain a balanced approach, integrating rest and mental health support into training regimes.

Similar Terms

  • Strength Training: A broader term that includes various forms of resistance exercises.
  • Bodybuilding: Focuses more on muscle hypertrophy and aesthetics.
  • Powerlifting: A sport focusing on maximal strength in the squat, bench press, and deadlift.
  • CrossFit: A high-intensity fitness program that incorporates weightlifting movements.


Weightlifting in the psychology context highlights the integral role of mental resilience, focus, and cognitive strategies in enhancing performance and well-being. It provides numerous psychological benefits, including improved mood and self-esteem, while also posing risks that need careful management. The discipline and mental skills developed through weightlifting are invaluable and applicable to various aspects of life, making it a multifaceted practice that extends beyond physical strength.


Wellness refers to a dynamic state of physical, mental, and social well-being; a way of life that equips the individual to realise the full potential of their capabilities and to compensate for and overcome weaknesses. Wellness is a lifestyle that recognises the importance of self -responsibility, physical fitness, nutrition and stress reduction.
Weltschmerz is defined as world weariness; pessimism, apathy, or sadness felt at the difference between physical reality and the ideal state. Weltschmerz is from the German word Weltschmerz - Welt is world and Schmerz means pain.