study are the real cause of the relationship between the variables measured in the study; not knowing from a correlational observation whether a change in one variable caused a change in a second variable or whether a third variable caused a change in both.
correlation between variables A and B is due to the influence of an unknown third variable rather than to a causal relationship between A and B.
behavior is the seeking of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. For Hobbes, the function of government is to satisfy as many human needs as possible and to prevent humans from fighting with each other. Hobbes believed that all human activity which includes mental activity, could be reduced to atoms in motion, and this shows that Hobbes was a Materialist.
community are governed by a shared set of beliefs called a Paradigm. This Paradigmatic, or normal, science continues until an existing Paradigm is displaced by another Paradigm.
individuals are born than environmental resources can support, there is a struggle for survival and only the fittest survive.